See John 18:28-38. We must remember that Pilate must have sent the band (John 18:3), and was therefore expecting its return. Then led they Jesus from Caiaphas When Peter had denied him, one of the officers had smote him, the high priest had examined him, and they thought they had enough, out of his own mouth, to condemn him; they, the chief priests, elders, Scribes, and the whole multitude, led him bound as he was, from Caiaphas's house, 1, 3. Originally, the general's tent. 148 Jewish War 2.301; 328. of California - Do Not Sell My Personal Information. John 18:28: Then they led Jesus from the house of Caiaphas to the governor's headquarters.Greek the praetorium It was early morning. We have Jesus and Pilate; the âgood confession,â and the indifferent answer. pure and undefiled; not the passover lamb, for that they had commemorative passover kept by the Jews, in our Lord's time, and time, defend it, by observing the despotic and legislative power they had been all night in taking and examining Jesus, and By now it was early morning, and to avoid ceremonial uncleanness they did not enter the palace, because they wanted to be able to eat the Passover. Here, âhall of judgment,â or âPilateâs house,â and âjudgment-hall;â John 18:33, âhall of judgmentâ without the marginal alternative; John 19:9, âjudgment-hall;â in Matthew 27:27, âcommon-hall,â or âgovernorâs house;â in Mark 15:16, âprÃ¦toriumâ (the original word Anglicised); in Acts 23:35, âjudgment-hall;â in Philippians 1:13, âpalace,â this being perhaps the only passage where âpalaceâ does not give the right meaning. 8. Accordingly, Mr 14:62: Jesus said, I am—"Thou hast said" (Mt 26:64). ("Laws," 868). See on Philippians 1:13. out of their hands: and they themselves went not into the judgment hall, lest many days before it; six days before it, Jesus came to Bethany, ( judgment of particular persons, to determine as they should think their hands: and it was early; 4. The Kingdom of Truth John 18:28-40 Truth Taught- Jesus reveals the Truth of God to all who are His. The passover is not slain but in the court, as the rest of the holy things; even in the time that altars were lawful, they did not offer the passover on a private altar; and whoever offers the passover on a private altar, is to be beaten; as it is said, "thou mayest not sacrifice the passover within any of thy gates, which the Lord thy God giveth thee", Deuteronomy 16:5.''. p. 4. This defilement, produced by contact with a Gentile, they considered as equivalent to that of the contact of a dead body Leviticus 22:4-6; Numbers 5:2, and as disqualifying them to partake of the passover in a proper manner. (t) Misn. They themselves did not enter the governor's headquarters, so that they would not be defiled, but could eat the Passover. "They made This rendered an answer by our Lord legally necessary (Le 5:1). John 19:17-27 Jesus is Crucified. These are questions which have occasioned immense research and learned treatises. T. Bab. ( Luke and modern, have concluded from hence, that Christ did not keep That they might eat the passover - See the notes at Matthew 26:2, Matthew 26:17. On the day of preparation for Passover, the religious leaders come to Pilate to sacrifice the Lamb of God. (28) On the accusation before Pilate ( John 18:28-38 ), comp. twrwdm) , "the dwelling houses of Gentiles", or idolaters, They did not think it lawful to rent out a house in Judea to an Heathen (w), or to assist in building a Basilica for them; which they explain to be a palace, in which judges sit to judge men (x): hence the reason of their caution, and which they were the more observant of. 1. Pilate extorts the malign intention of the Jews, and dares them to disobey Roman law. c. 5. sect. It was the place where the Roman proctor, or governor, heard and decided cases brought before him. But it shows us how much more concerned men will be at the violation of the mere forms and ceremonies of religion than at real crime, and how they endeavor to keep their consciences at ease amid their deeds of wickedness by the observance of some of the outward ceremonies of religion by mere sanctimoniousness. Israelites, and Gentiles were admitted to dwell in them, they This rite Jesus had observed with his disciples the day before this. and the servants did strike him with the palms of their hands—"And many other things blasphemously spake they against him" (Lu 22:65). A graphic image of the wrath of God against sin, and in addition of his great mercy, and last of all of his most severe judgment against the stubborn condemners of his grace when it is offered unto them. passover?" deliverance of the people of Israel out of Egypt; such as is now Others suggest, that this difference of observing the passover by Christ and the Jews arose from fixing the beginning of the month, and so accordingly the feasts in it, by the or appearance of the moon; and that our Lord went according to the true appearance of it, and the Jews according to a false account: but of this, as a fact, there is no proof; besides, though the feasts were regulated and fixed according to the appearance of the moon, yet this was not left to the arbitrary will, pleasure, and judgment of particular persons, to determine as they should think proper; but the sanhedrim, or chief council of the nation sat, at a proper time, to hear and examine witnesses about the appearance of the moon; and accordingly determined, and none might fix but them (y); and as this was doubtless the case at this time, it is not very reasonable to think, that Christ would differ from them: besides, it was either a clear case, or a doubtful one; if the former, then there would be no room nor reason to keep another day; and if it was the latter, then two days were observed, that they might be sure they were right (z); but then both were kept by all the Jews: and that the time of this passover was well known, is clear from various circumstances; such and such facts were done, so many days before it; six days before it, Jesus came to Bethany, John 12:1 and two days before it, he was in the same place, Matthew 26:2 and says to his disciples, "ye know that after two days is the feast of the passover", &c. Others taking it for granted, that Christ kept the passover a day before the usual and precise time, defend it, by observing the despotic and legislative power of Christ, who had a right to dispense with the time of this feast, and could at his pleasure anticipate it, because the betraying of him and his death were so near at hand: that he had such a power will not be disputed; but that he should use it in this way, does not seem necessary, on account of his death, seeing none but the living were obliged to it; nor so consistent with his wisdom, since hereby the mouths of his enemies would be opened against him, for acting not agreeably to the law of God: moreover, when it is considered that the passover, according to the Jews, was always kept "in its set time" (a), and was not put off on the account of the sabbath, or anything else, to another day; and that though when it was put off for particular persons, on account of uncleanness, to another month, yet still it was to be kept on the fourteenth day at even, in that month, Numbers 9:10 it will not easily be received that Christ observed it a day before the time: besides, the passover lamb was not killed in a private house, but in the temple, in the court of it, and that always on the fourteenth of Nisan, after noon: so says Maimonides (b), "it is an affirmative command to slay the passover on the fourteenth of the month Nisan, after the middle of the day. Probably there is not anywhere to be found among men another such instance of petty regard to the mere ceremonies of the law and attempting to keep from pollution, at the same time that their hearts were filled with malice, and they were meditating the most enormous of all crimes. were defiled, and all that were in them; for so they say betraying of him and his death were so near at hand: that he had from various circumstances; such and such facts were done, so c. 5. sect. (z) Ib. John 19:1-6 Jesus Is Scourged. down, and the twelve apostles with him", ( Luke 22:14 ) "and he And Plato: "And if a homicide... without purification pollutes the agora, or the games, or the temples," etc. 28 Then the Jewish leaders took Jesus from Caiaphas to the palace of the Roman governor. But as the usages of the Jews appear to have somewhat varied at different times, and our present knowledge of them is not sufficient to clear up all difficulties, they are among the not very important questions which probably will never be entirely solved. Our Lord says a few things about the nature of His kingdom that should prove very helpful for us today. John 18:28. days were observed, that they might be sure they were right unto the hall of judgment; or the "praetorium"; the place where the Roman governor, who was now Pontius Pilate, used to hear and try causes in; the Romans now having matters and causes relating to life and death, in their hands: and it was early; the morning indeed was come; but it was as soon as it was day; they had been all night in taking and examining Jesus, and consulting what to do with him; and as soon as they could expect the governor to be up, they hurry him away to him, eagerly thirsting after his blood, and fearing lest he should be rescued out of their hands: and they themselves went not into the judgment hall, lest they should be defiled; that is, the Jews, only the band of Roman soldiers went in; the reason of this was, because it was the house of a Gentile, and with them, , "the dwelling houses of Gentiles", or idolaters, "are unclean" (t); yea, if they were the houses of Israelites, and Gentiles were admitted to dwell in them, they were defiled, and all that were in them; for so they say (u), "if the collectors for the government enter into a house to dwell in, all in the house are defiled.''.  His accusers didn’t go inside because it would defile them, and they wouldn’t be allowed to celebrate the Passover. Lest they should be defiled - They considered the touch of a Gentile to be a defilement, and on this occasion, at least, seemed to regard it as a pollution to enter the house of a Gentile. - Then they lead Jesus from the house of Caiaphas to the Praetorium - to the imperial palace of the Roman governor. when they KILLED the passover, his disciples said to him, where John 18:28 Context. elders, Scribes, and the whole multitude, led him bound as he "They made ready the passover", Luke 22:13 "and he sat down, and the twelve apostles with him", Luke 22:14 "and he said unto them, with desire I have desired to eat this passover", Luke 22:15. It came to be applied to any spacious villa or palace. ((c) T. Hieros. What think ye?—"Say, what verdict would ye pronounce.". We'll send you an email with steps on how to reset your password. Notes on the parallels in Matthew 27:11-14; Mark 15:2-5; … Jesus had been condemned by the Sanhedrin, and pronounced guilty of death Matthew 26:66; but they had not power to carry their sentence into execution John 18:31, and they therefore sought that he might be condemned and executed by Pilate. whilst the temple stood: and supposing there was such an one And to cover His face, and to buffet Him, and to say unto Him, Prophesy—or, "divine," "unto us, Thou Christ, who is he that smote Thee?" 146 For more details see J. H. Bernard, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel According to St. John, 2:604. days is the feast of the passover" Others taking it for granted, that is, the Jews, only the band of Roman soldiers went in; the The Sanhedrim could not hold a legal meeting, especially in capital cases, before sunrise; and in such cases judicial proceedings must be conducted and terminated by day. John 12:1 ) and 7. In Lu 22:67, 68, some other words are given, "If I tell you, ye will not believe; and if I also ask you, ye will not answer Me, nor let Me go." Christ had said he should be delivered to the Gentiles, and they should … 4. 12. In Rome the term was applied to the proetorian guard, or imperial bodyguard. Then he was taken to the headquarters of the Roman governor. 22:15 ) . I. Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers. would differ from them: besides, it was either a clear case, or a (b) Hilchot Korban Pesacb. that they might eat the passover; they And it was early.âThe Greek word occurs in the division of the night in Mark 13:35 (âeven,â âmidnight,â âcock-crowing,â âmorningâ) for the time between cock-crowing and sunrise, as we should say roughly, from three to six oâclock; but comp. Hall of judgment - The praetorium - the same word that in Matthew 27:27, is translated "common hall." John 18:38-40 Pilate’s Compromise. 166-170): First, Barabbas should have been on the cross instead of Jesus because he was guilty and deserved to die. Others suggest, that this difference of observing Ye have heard the blasphemy—"of his own mouth" (Lu 22:71); an affectation of religious horror. The very day of keeping the ordinance was specified in the law of Moses, and it is not probable that the Saviour departed from the commandment. A Latin word, proetorium, transcribed. The hall of judgment.âLiterally, the PrÅtorium. And they themselves went not into the judgment hall. 4. Truth is essential to healthy relationships and strong communities. eaten the night before; but the "Chagigah", or feast on the The kept by the Jews, being out of their own land, where sacrifice and not the former: but it does not appear that there was such a At first Pilate will scarcely attend to the accusers of Christ. Sanhedrin, c. 13. sect. allowed, and appointed for those that were at a distance from John 18:24, 28.). This seems to have been uttered before giving His direct answer, as a calm remonstrance and dignified protest against the prejudgment of His case and the unfairness of their mode of procedure. (See Le 24:16). seeing none but the living were obliged to it; nor so consistent feast, and could at his pleasure anticipate it, because the proper; but the sanhedrim, or chief council of the nation sat, at John 19 - In-depth verse-by-verse commentary and Bible study of John chapter 19 in plain English. Note.—Our Evangelist, having given the interview with Annas, omitted by the other Evangelists, here omits the trial and condemnation before Caiaphas, which the others had recorded. Nor is there anything in this text, that is an objection to Christ and the Jews keeping the passover at the same time; since by the passover here is meant, the "Chagigah", or feast kept on the fifteenth day of the month, as it is sometimes called: in Deuteronomy 16:2 it is said, "thou shalt therefore sacrifice the passover unto the Lord thy God, of the flock and the herd": now the passover of the herd, can never mean the passover lamb, but the passover "Chagigah"; and so the Jewish commentators explain it; "of the herd", says Jarchi, thou shalt sacrifice for the "Chagigah"; and says Aben Ezra, for the peace offerings; so Josiah the king is said to give for the passovers three thousand bullocks, and the priests three hundred oxen, and the Levites five hundred oxen, 2 Chronicles 35:7 which Jarchi interprets of the peace offerings of the "Chagigah", there called passovers; and so in 1 Esdres 1:7-9 mention is made of three thousand calves, besides lambs, that Josias gave for the passover; and three hundred by some other persons, and seven hundred by others: the passage in Deuteronomy, is explained of the "Chagigah", in both Talmuds (c), and in other writings (d); so besides the passover lamb, we read of sacrifices slain, , "in the name of" the passover, or on account of it (e); and particularly of the calf and the young bullock, slain for the sake of the passover (f): and now this is the passover which these men were to eat that day, and therefore were careful not to defile themselves, that so they might not be unfit for it; otherwise had it been the passover lamb in the evening, they might have washed themselves in the evening, according to the rules of , or "the daily washing", and been clean enough to have eat it: besides, it may be observed, that all the seven days were called the passover; and he that ate the unleavened bread, is said by eating that, to eat the passover; and thus they invite their guests daily to eat the bread, saying (g), "everyone that is hungry, let him come and eat all that he needs, "and keep the passover".''. they themselves went not into the Praetorium, Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers. All rights reserved. (h) T. Bab. Jews: and that the time of this passover was well known, is clear "are unclean" F20; yea, if they were the houses of (e) Misn. were regulated and fixed according to the appearance of the moon, Then led they Jesus from Caiaphas to the hall of judgment—but not till "in the morning the chief priests held a consultation with the elders and scribes and the whole council against Him to put Him to death, and bound Him" (Mt 27:1; and see on Mr 15:1). 28 Jesus’ trial before Caiaphas ended in the early hours of the morning. Ed. consulting what to do with him; and as soon as they could expect sect. F26; but then both were kept by all the Many Christian writers, both ancient and modern, have concluded from hence, that Christ did not keep his last passover, at the same time the Jews did; and many things are said to illustrate this matter, and justify our Lord in it: some observe the distinction of a sacrificial, and commemorative passover; the sacrificial passover is that, in which the lamb was slain, and was fixed to a certain time and place, and there was no altering it; the commemorative passover is that, in which no lamb is slain and eaten, only a commemoration made of the deliverance of the people of Israel out of Egypt; such as is now kept by the Jews, being out of their own land, where sacrifice with them is not lawful; and this it is supposed our Lord kept, and not the former: but it does not appear that there was such a commemorative passover kept by the Jews, in our Lord's time, and whilst the temple stood: and supposing there was such an one allowed, and appointed for those that were at a distance from Jerusalem, and could not come up thither, (which was not the case of Christ and his disciples,) it is reasonable to conclude, that it was to be kept, and was kept at the time the sacrificial passover was, in the room of which it was substituted, as it is by the Jews to this day; so that this will by no means clear the matter, nor solve the difficulty; besides it is very manifest, that the passover our Lord kept was sacrificial; and such an one the disciples proposed to get ready for him, and did, of which he and they are said to eat: "and the first day of unleavened bread, when they KILLED the passover, his disciples said to him, where wilt thou that we go and prepare, that thou mayest EAT the passover?" 2 And the soldiers … Sanhedrin, fol. passover was, in the room of which it was substituted, as it is Matthew "then came the day of unleavened bread, when the passover MUST be Y. Yadin, BA 30 (1967): 137. at this time, it is not very reasonable to think, that Christ They took care, therefore, to guard themselves against what they considered ceremonial pollution, while they were wholly unconcerned at the enormous crime of putting the innocent Saviour to death, and imbruing their hands in their Messiah's blood. Introduction The main focus of the text for today is the Kingdom of Jesus Christ. (x) Jarchi & Bartenora in ib. The high priest asked Him, Art Thou the Christ, the Son of the blessed?—Matthew says the high priest put Him upon solemn oath, saying, "I adjure Thee by the living God that Thou tell us whether Thou be the Christ, the Son of God" (Mt 26:63). Excursus F: The Day of the Crucifixion of our Lord. Parkhurst, Jr. Salem Media Group. The narrative lectionary gives us two weeks to consider Jesus’ interaction with Pilate in John 18:28-19:16a. Commentary on John 18:28-37 International Bible Lessons Sunday, April 1, 2012 L.G. Please enter your email address associated with your Salem All-Pass account, then click Continue. Pesachim, fol. c. 10. sect. They themselves did not enter the governor's headquarters, so that they would not be defiled, but could eat the Passover. KILLED", ( Luke 22:7 ) . no altering it; the commemorative passover is that, in which no in Misn. FIRST STAGE OF THE ROMAN TRIAL. Hilch. Mr 14:63, 64: Then the high priest rent his clothes, and saith, What need we any further witnesses? See Isa 50:6. Jesus Before Pilate - Then the Jewish leaders took Jesus from Caiaphas to the palace of the Roman governor. II. neg. reason to keep another day; and if it was the latter, then two The character here is Barabbas, the robber, murderer, and rebel who was freed instead of Jesus. Rittangel. John 18:1-14 Jesus’ Betrayal by Judas. that always on the fourteenth of Nisan, after noon: so says of Christ and his disciples,) it is reasonable to conclude, that Then led they Jesus from Caiaphas unto the hall of judgment: and it was early; and they themselves went not into the judgment hall, lest they should be defiled; but that they might eat the passover. now having matters and causes relating to life and death, in the governor to be up, they hurry him away to him, eagerly John 19:28-37 Fulfilment of Prophecy. Compare Acts 23:35. And seeing therefore a passover lamb was not to be killed at home, but in the court of the priests, in the temple, it does not seem probable, that a single lamb should be suffered to be killed there, for Christ and his disciples, on a day not observed by the Jews, contrary to the sense of the sanhedrim, and of the whole nation: add to this, that the sacred text is express for it, that it was at the exact time of this feast, when it was come according to general computation, that the disciples moved to Christ to prepare the passover for him, and did, and they with him kept it: the account Matthew gives is very full; "now the first day of the feast of unleavened bread"; that is, when that was come in its proper time and course, "the disciples came to Jesus"; saying unto him, where wilt "thou that we prepare for thee to eat the passover?" and ye shall see the Son of man, &c.—This concluding part of our Lord's answer is given somewhat more fully by Matthew and Luke. John 18:28 (with John 19:16) The Spirit of God striving with Man—Pontius Pilate judging the Lord Christ . John 18:28 REV and Commentary - Then they lead Jesus from Caiaphas into the Praetorium (and it was early), and yet they th - Bible verse Maimon. The International Bible Lesson (Uniform Sunday School Series) for Sunday, April 1, 2012, is from John 18:28-37.Five Questions for Discussion and Thinking Further follow the verse by verse International Bible Lessons Commentary below. 5. Many Christian writers, both ancient out of his own mouth, to condemn him; they, the chief priests, of Christ, who had a right to dispense with the time of this 149 This practice is alluded to in the Temple Scroll from Qumran, 1st century BC; cf. reason of this was, because it was the house of a Gentile, and that month, ( Numbers 9:10 Maimonides F2. (3) The Roman trial, presupposing the decision of the Sanhedrin. 145 Morris, The Gospel According to John, 752, n. 32. 6, 7, 8. 147 Embassy to Gaius 38 . 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